EMF Health-effects Research
Comparison of numerical and experimental methods for determination of SAR and radiation patterns of handheld wireless telephones.
Gandhi OP, Lazzi G, Tinniswood A, Yu QS,
Bioelectromagnetics Suppl 4:93-101, 1999
Some recent developments in both the numerical and experimental methods for determination of SARs and radiation patterns of handheld wireless telephones are described, with emphasis on comparison of results using the two methods.
For numerical calculations, it was possible to use the Pro-Engineer CAD Files of cellular telephones for a realistic description of the device. Also, we used the expanding grid formulation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for finer-resolution representation of the coupled region, including the antenna, and an increasingly coarser representation of the more-distant, less-coupled region. Together with the truncation of the model of the head, this procedure led to a saving of computer memory needed for SAR calculations by a factor of over 20. Automated SAR and radiation pattern measurement systems were used to validate both the calculated 1-g SARs and radiation patterns for several telephones, including some research test samples, using a variety of antennas.
Even though widely different peak 1-g SARs were obtained, ranging from 0.13 to 5.41 W/kg, agreement between the calculated and the measured data for these telephones, five each at 835 and 1900 MHz, was excellent and generally within +/-20% (+/-1 dB). An important observation was that for a maximum radiated power of 600 mW at 800/900 MHz, which may be used for telephones using AMPS technology, the peak 1-g SARs can be higher than 1.6 W/kg unless antennas are carefully designed and placed further away from the head.