EMF Health-effects Research
Influence of anesthesia on ocular effects and temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to microwaves.
Kojima M, Hata I, Wake K, Watanabe S, Yamanaka Y, Kamimura Y, Taki M, Sasaki K.
Bioelectromagnetics 25(3):228-233, 2004
To investigate the effect of systemic anesthesia on ocular effects and temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to microwaves, one eye each of 43 male pigmented rabbits (Dutch, 1.8-2.2 kg) was exposed at 2.45 GHz for 60-20 min (300 mW/cm2; 108 W/kg), either under anesthesia (ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg) + xylazine (0.23 mg/kg)) or without anesthesia.
Changes in the anterior segment were evaluated by image analysis utilizing a Scheimpflug camera, specular microscopy, and a laser flare cell meter. Temperatures within the eye were measured during microwave exposure by a Fluoroptic thermometer.
The exposed eyes showed miosis, conjunctival congestion, corneal edema, and an increase in the light scattering of the anterior shallow cortex in the pupillary area of the lens. The group under systemic anesthesia showed much stronger symptoms than those treated without anesthesia. All of the anterior ocular changes disappeared within a week. The highest temperature during exposure was in the vitreous, followed by the anterior chamber, and the retrobulbar cavity of the orbit. The ocular temperatures of the rabbits under systemic anesthesia were 2-9 degrees C higher than those without anesthesia. Body temperature showed an increase of 1 degrees C during the exposure.
Acute high intensity microwave exposure temporarily induced anterior segments inflammation and lens changes. The more pronounced ocular effects in the anesthetized rabbits were associated with the significantly higher ocular temperatures in the anesthetized animals. The influence of systemic anesthesia on ocular changes should be considered.