EMF Health-effects Research
Inter-beat intervals of cardiac-cell aggregates during exposure to 2.45 GHz CW, pulsed, and square-wave-modulated microwaves
Seaman RL, DeHaan RL,
Bioelectromagnetics 14(1):41-55, 1993
Inter-beat intervals of aggregated cardiac cells from chicken embryos were studied during 190 s exposures to 2.45 GHz microwaves in an open-ended coaxial device. Averaged specific-absorption rates (SARs) and modulation conditions were 1.2-86.9 W/kg continuous-wave (CW), 1.2-12.2 W/kg pulse modulation (PW, duty cycle approximately 11%), and 12.0-43.5 W/kg square-wave modulation (duty cycle = 50%).
The inter-beat interval decreased during microwave exposures at 42.0 W/kg and higher when CW or square-wave modulation was used, which is consistent with established effects of elevated temperatures.
However, increases in the inter-beat interval during CW exposures at 1.2-12.2 W/kg, and decreases in the inter-beat interval after PW exposures at 8.4-12.2 W/kg, are not consistent with simple thermal effects.
Analysis of variance indicated that SAR, modulation, and the modulation-SAR interaction were all significant factors in altering the inter-beat interval. The latter two factors indicated that the cardiac cells were affected by athermal as well as thermal effects of microwave exposure.