EMF Health-effects Research
Multinucleated giant cell appearance after whole body microwave irradiation of rats.
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 204(2-3):133-138, 2001
Multinucleated giant cells are common for some chronic inflammatory processes in the lung. These cells are formed by fusion of macrophages, but how the process relates to the kinetics of alveolar macrophage generation is not clear.
This study investigated the influence of 2450 MHz microwave irradiation on alveolar macrophage kinetics and formation of multinucleated giant cells after whole body irradiation of rats. The range of electromagnetic radiation was selected as 2450 MHz microwaves at a power density of 5-15 mW/cm2. A group of experimental animals was divided in four subgroups that received 2, 8, 13 and 22 irradiation treatments of two hours each. The animals were killed on experimental days 1, 8, 16, and 30. Free lung cell population was obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. Cell response to the selected irradiation level was followed quantitatively, qualitatively and morphologically using standard laboratory methods.
Total cell number retrieved by lavage slightly decreased in treated animals showing time- and dose-dependence. Cell viability did not significantly change in the irradiated animal group (G2) as compared with the control group (G1). Multinucleated cells significantly increased (p < 0.01) in treated animals. The elevation of the number of nuclei per cell was time- and dose-dependent. Macrophages with two nucleoli were more common in animals treated twice or eight times. Polynucleation, that is three and more nucleoli in a single cell, was frequently observed after 13 or 22 treatments. Binucleation and multinucleation of alveolar macrophages were sensitive time- and dose-dependent morphological indicators of pulmonary stress.