EMF Health-effects Research
Effects of 1-Week and 6-Week Exposure to GSM/DCS Radiofrequency Radiation on Micronucleus Formation in B6C3F1 Mice.
Gorlitz BD, Muller M, Ebert S, Hecker H, Kuster N, Dasenbrock C.
Radiat Res. 164(4):431-439, 2005
The aim of this study was to examine the possible induction of micronuclei in erythrocytes of the peripheral blood and bone marrow and in keratinocytes and spleen lymphocytes of mice exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 2 h per day over periods of 1 and 6 weeks, respectively. The applied signal simulated the exposure from GSM900 and DCS1800 handsets, including the low-frequency amplitude-modulation components as they occur during speaking (GSM Basic), listening (DTX) and moving within the environment (handovers, power control).
The carrier frequency was set to the center of the system's uplink band, i.e., 902 MHz for GSM and 1747 MHz for DCS. Uniform whole-body exposure was achieved by restraining the mice in tubes at fixed positions in the exposure setup. Mice were exposed to slot-averaged whole-body SARs of 33.2, 11.0, 3.7 and 0 mW/g during the 1-week study and 24.9, 8.3, 2.8 and 0 mW/g during the 6-week study. Exposure levels for the 1- and 6-week studies were determined in a pretest to confirm that no thermal effect was present that could influence the genotoxic end points.
During both experiments and for both frequencies, no clinical abnormalities were detected in the animals. Cells of the bone marrow from the femur (1-week study), erythrocytes of the peripheral blood (6-week study), keratinocytes from the tail root, and lymphocytes from the spleen (both studies) were isolated on slides and stained for micronucleus analysis.
Two thousand cells per animal were scored in erythrocyte and keratinocyte samples. In spleen lymphocytes, 1000 binucleated lymphocytes were scored for each animal. The RF-field exposure had no influence on the formation of red blood cells.
After 1 week of exposure, the ratio of polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes was unchanged in the treated groups compared to the sham-exposed groups. Furthermore, the RF-field exposure of mice did not induce an increase in the number of micronuclei in erythrocytes of the bone marrow or peripheral blood, in keratinocytes, or in spleen lymphocytes compared to the sham-treated control.