EMF Health-effects Research
Micronucleus frequency in erythrocytes of mice after long-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation.
Juutilainen J, Heikkinen P, Soikkeli H, Mäki-Paakkanen J.
Int J Radiat Biol. 83(4):213-220, 2007
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate genotoxicity of long-term exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields by measuring micronuclei in erythrocytes. The blood samples were collected in two animal studies evaluating possible cocarcinogenic effects of RF fields.
METHODS: In study A, female CBA/S mice were exposed for 78 weeks (1.5 h/d, 5 d/week) to either a continuous 902.5 MHz signal similar to that emitted by analog NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) phones at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/kg, or to a pulsed 902.4 MHz signal similar to that of digital GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) phones at 0.35 W/kg. A third group was sham-exposed, and a fourth group served as cage controls.
All but the cage control animals were exposed to 4 Gy of x-rays during three first weeks of the experiment. In study B, female transgenic mice (line K2) and their nontransgenic littermates were exposed for 52 weeks (1.5 h/d, 5 d/week). Two digital mobile phone signals, GSM and DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), were used at 0.5 W/kg. All but the cage-control animals were exposed 3 times per week to an ultraviolet radiation dose of 1.2 MED (minimum erythema dose).
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results did not show any effects of RF fields on micronucleus frequency in polychromatic or normochromatic erythrocytes. The results were consistent in two mouse strains (and in a transgenic variant of the second strain), after 52 or 78 weeks of exposure, at three SAR levels relevant to human exposure from mobile phones, and for three different mobile signals.