EMF Health-effects Research
Antibody responses of mice exposed to low-power microwaves under combined, pulse-and-amplitude modulation
Veyret B, Bouthet C, Deschaux P, de Seze R, Geffard M, Joussot-Dubien J, le Diraison M, Moreau JM, Caristan A,
Bioelectromagnetics 12(1):47-56, 1991
Irradiation by pulsed microwaves (9.4 GHz, 1 microsecond pulses at 1,000/s), both with and without concurrent amplitude modulation (AM) by a sinusoid at discrete frequencies between 14 and 41 MHz, was assessed for effects on the immune system of Balb/C mice.
The mice were immunized either by sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or by glutaric-anhydride conjugated bovine serum albumin (GA-BSA), then exposed to the microwaves at a low rms power density (30 microW/cm2; whole-body-averaged SAR approximately 0.015 W/kg). Sham exposure or microwave irradiation took place during each of five contiguous days, 10 h/day.
The antibody response was evaluated by the plaque-forming cell assay (SRBC experiment) or by the titration of IgM and IgG antibodies (GA-BSA experiment). In the absence of AM, the pulsed field did not greatly alter immune responsiveness. In contrast, exposure to the field under the combined-modulation condition resulted in significant, AM-frequency-dependent augmentation or weakening of immune responses.